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University of Bristol
Wellcome Trust
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Society of Biology
PEEP for Physics & Ethics at GCSE


Steps in composing an argument

  1. State your claim.
  2. Support it with facts (data) arranged singly
  3. For each fact, give the evidence for the fact (warrant),
  4. For each warrant, comment on how valid it is(backing)
  5. For each warrant and its backing, think of an opposing point of view (rebuttal)
  6. Consider possible warrants and backing for the rebuttals
  7. Having argued the rebuttals, do you wish to qualify your original claim?

 Evaluating Bias


A CLAIM - it is morally right to use animals for testing new medicines

DATA to support the claim - the law (Scientific Procedures Act) protects all lab animals from cruelty or mistreatment

A WARRANT to connects the data to the claim - the Scientific Procedures Act is strictly enforced

BACKING - the framework of Home Office Inspections of testing labs

QUALIFIER - animal testing is morally acceptable when there is no other scientifically comparable alternative.

REBUTTAL - no, animal life is morally on a par with human life.

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NOT RATED Christine 24-02-11 00:03
Steps in example not fully matched to steps column e.g. qualifier from example does not appear in the steps list. The beginning is good but looses comparability further down