- Human activities will alter and damage ecosystems. Often human benefits must be balanced against possible environmental damage.
- In many cases, human skills can be sued to help restore habitats that have been damaged by human exploitation.
- Successful restoration will depend upon knowledge of biological and chemical phenomena and the application of mechanical and technical skills.
- Gravel pits.
- Spoil heaps.
- Bioremediation – repair of ecosystems damaged by pollution e.g. oil spills.